提高雅思作文方法


提高雅思作文方法。作文一直是公认的难题,小编针对作文分享了一些提高雅思作文方法,欢迎阅读!

英语学习

雅思写作提高分数的四个技巧

雅思写作与四六级写作不同,其中有很多能够为文章增添色彩的技巧同学们需要知道。掌握这些技巧后,在雅思写作中熟练正确的运用有助于雅思写作取得高分。但此处雅思小编提醒,无法保证语法上能够用对的同学,不要轻易尝试。

首先,雅思写作当中,状语前置的句式是能帮助拿分的,即:将一个修饰动词的状语结构,如:介词短语,动名词短语及不定式等放在句首。例如:Throughoutthe century, the largest quantity of water was used for agriculturalpurposes.

使用状语前置的最大优点是让单调的句子有节奏感。考官每天看很多考卷,如果句式都雷同的话,就会觉得很枯燥,看到这样的句子也会心情愉悦。

第二种方法是尝试使用插入语,使用插入语是英语水平的一种体现,如果能在写作当中适当加入一些的话,可以让英文表达更自然,更地道。例如:Dontassumeeven if you get your water from a private wellthat you need notobserve good water use rules.

本例句当中,破折号之间的部分就是一个典型的插入语,建议大家学习模仿。

第三,能够帮助提分的一种句型是倒装句,即:把谓语提前到主语之前,由于大部分学生对于倒装句仅仅是认识,而距离运用还有一段距离,因此,如果能适当的在考试当中给予运用,当然能给考官们一种耳目一新的感觉。例如:Onlyif you ask many different questions will you acquire all the information.

最后一点,想提出的是被动的运用,由于受中式思维的影响,大家在写作当中还是更倾向于使用主动语态的句子,然而,在纯正的英文环境当中,被动的使用可以说是比比皆是。所以,建议大家勇于多多的使用含有被动语态的句子。例如:Theroadways have been jammed because of peoples dependence on cars.

雅思写作提高技巧--注重语言多样性

I 雅思写作语言特点

首先,雅思A类作文,不管是大作文还是小作文,都是非常正式的学术性文体,所以在写作中不宜出现以下一些现象:

1. 口语化词汇,如小作文中经常出现的lets look at the firstgraph;以及大小作文中都出现过的一些词汇,如good,more and more,等都是口语的表达。如:

Today, our world is becoming more and more reliant on moderntechnology.

more and more过于口语化,可改成increasingly

2.在书写中不能出现连写的情况。如it is 不能写成its,should not也不能写成 shouldnt等等。如:

The gas A wasnt produced until 1972, after which, its production grewrapidly.

wasnt需改成was not.

3.在拼写上,最好能做到英美拼写统一。我们要注意的是,评分标准中,考官介绍英式和美式的拼写方法,但作为考生,最好能做到统一一致,使文体更正式。如:

The bottles are first divided by color into green, brown and clear oneswhich are then washed by high-pressurised water.

color是美式拼法,而high-pressurised是英式拼法,可把后者改为high-pressurized。

4.雅思小作文是说明文,切忌出现任何个人观点的表达,而大作文是议论文,也需避免出现情感的表达。如:

Let all of us make great efforts to construct a more civilized China!

典型的中国式喊口号,放了很多情感,这在雅思议论文写作中是不需要的。

5.在大作文,议论文中,我们要遵守一个规则,即non-political非政治性。雅思写作是英联邦国家对考生英语水平的测试,所以考生要尽量避免出现会引起争议的话题,如战争,宗教等。如:

We must be friendly to others because the Bible said, Treat your neighborsas you would like to be treated.

了解了雅思写作的一些语言特色后,我们必须从评分标准来分析如何达到语言上的6分,甚至更高的分数。从评分标准来看,这一评分标准被解读为6分是标准,而达到这个标准,学生的作文必须要做到语言的准确性。而到达这一标准后,做到多样性和灵活性的语言使用,考生就能达到更高的分数。

II 语言的准确性

中国考生的平均分不到6分,说明绝大多数考生在语言的准确使用上还存在很大的问题。最常见的是中国式英语的出现。

When we first fell onto the floor,

People mountain people sea

以上两句是考生作文中出现的,这种情况的出现会导致考官完全无法读懂考生要表达的意思,而导致扣分。另外常见的语法错误还出现在以下方面,如主谓不一致,单复数不注意,句子结构错误,时态语态错误,搭配错误等等。如:

1.Children who is raised in impoverished families can generally deal withproblems effectively in their adult years.

主谓不一致,is 改成are

2.At present, people tended to take private cares rather than publictransport.

时态错误 tended改成tend

3.Grow up in a poor family makes some children feel they are not as capableas other children.

句子结构错误,grow是动词不能做主语,改成growing。

III 语言的多样性

语言的多样性使用体现在词汇和句型上。

在词汇的使用上,很多考生都有一个误区,认为用越难的词分数会越高,其实不然,准确的使用和多样的使用才是最重要的。如在表示美丽的时候,很多考生想到的第一个词肯定是beautiful,我们可以用很多其他的词来替换这个词而达到多样使用的目的,如nice,pretty, lovely, gorgeous, elegant, wonderful, fantastic, spectacular, fabulous,eye-catching, appealing, tempting, attractive等等。

此外,在句式上,同样的误区也会出现,考生认为全写长句复杂句,会拿高分,殊不知考官的评分标准中对句型的使用提到长短句相结合,所以我们在写几个长句的基础上,基本是以短句为主,那么短句就要加点特色,才能吸引考官的眼球。如下面的例句,我们可以通过三种不同的句式来完成写作:

随着20世纪末科技的繁荣,人们开始广泛使用电脑。

1.with 状语前置

With the prosperity of science and technology in the late 20th century,people tend to use computers widely.

2.witness

The late 20th century witnessed the prosperity of science and technology,which gives rise to that people tend to use computers widely

3.it is that 强调句

It is the prosperity of science and technology that leads to the wideapplication of computers in various aspects of peoples daily life.

如何提高雅思大作文的整体感

雅思大作文属于议论文,从交流的功能出发,议论的目的是要说服他人认同自己的观点。因此首先文章要有清晰的前后一致的观点或立场;其次有充分的证据;最后有条理地证明之。议论文的三要素在大作文的第一个评分标准回应题目(taskrespond)当中有清晰的表述。

第二个评分标准连贯与衔接(coherence andcohesion)主要强调有条理这一点,实现的手段在评分标准当中都有详尽的说明--论点的合理组织(ideaorganization),清晰的过程(clear progression),有效使用连接手段(cohesivedevices);指示代词(referencing)明确;段落(paragraphing)划分合理,每段有中心论点(central topic)等。

以上两个评分标准我用大作文的整体感来概述。(注:整体感和语言即词句没有紧密关系,所以之后的例文都尽量使用简单的词句,从而突出这个概念)如何简单有效地辨别有整体感的文章?其特点是它能让读者一气呵成地阅读,没有障碍,没有疑惑!

而模板化写作却反其道而行之,其弊病在于:将议论的逻辑链切割,豆腐块状写作,段落之间以及论点之间缺少关联,结果导致中心观点不明确;总之,读得费劲!具体举例如下:

With the wild spread of internet, many people choose to work at homeinstead of travelling to workplaces. Do you think the advantages of thisdevelopment outweigh disadvantages?

这道题讨论在家工作的优劣势。有些学生分别从优劣势两个方面来评价,但是因为双方观点不相上下,没有对其中任何一方的反驳,因此看不出任何倾向性,看完主体段仍旧不明确作者的立场到底是支持还是反对远程办公。到了结论段,学生才亮出自己的观点,而这个观点仍旧模棱两可,在家工作是个趋势,我们要趋利避害,正确使用等等。

整个文章没有议论文的感觉,倒是有点像literaturereview,把各家理论摆一摆。问题是文学评论的写作目的是对某一类研究领域有一个综合的描述和回顾,而雅思的议论文不是出于综述和回顾的目的,而是阐述个人观点并说服读者。所以这种文章通常得分低于学生的自我评估。

那么整体感如何实现呢?其实第二个评分标准已经给我们指出了具体的方法。我建议在以下四个方面做好连贯和链接工作:

第一是中心立场的明确,即全篇文章有一个明确的立场。举例在家工作的利弊。如果你赞成在家工作,可以语气坚定地提出这种工作方式的优势,如时间地点的灵活性,低成本以及由此引出其他好处,如工作家庭的平衡,工作地点的自由选择,员工和雇主的最佳匹配等等;让步段在阐述劣势的时候需要非常小心,首先语气要温和,不可激进,否则后面没法反驳。

可以说远程工作可能会出现一些问题,如员工的情感,归属感或者雇主无法监督等。然后就这些问题进行驳斥,或分析其逻辑漏洞即不合理之处;或提出解决方法以弱化问题本身;或指出其非主要矛盾或非主要因素。总之,让整篇文章的立场保持一致。对于远程办公的问题的反驳,提出解决方法是比较合适的策略。如通过在社区内的活动来补偿情感需求,或者间断性的公司面谈来解决归属感问题。

如果这道题持相反立场,整篇文章仍旧需要保持一贯性。首先劣势段作为立论段,要语气坚定地提出在家工作的弊病,尽量选择能严重影响工作效果效率的方面--员工的归属感减弱会导致不忠和跳槽增多,从而增加培训成本;家庭环境的干扰降低工作效率;缺少面对面交流造成沟通障碍以及减少创新思想的激发等等。

让步段的优势可以简单概述灵活性和低成本。之后比较有力的反驳策略是陈述这些优点并非要素,节省的通勤时间无法挽回效率的降低和创新能力的损失。

有工作经验或成熟一些的学生也许会说是否在家工作不能一刀切,而应看具体工作性质决定。我个人认为这是比较缜密的思考,也是有中心观点的文章。事实的确如此,例如排课的工作其实可以在家做,因为排课老师的工作沟通都是通过电子方式来进行的,既然不需要面对面的沟通,就没必要占用办公设施。

相反,老师肯定没法在家给一群幼儿园小孩上课。最适合这种思路的文章结构叫作平衡法,即两边都支持,不反对,然后在结论段分别陈述两者发挥优势所需要的条件或工作类型;或者两边都分别列举优缺点,最后陈述条件。

整体感的第二个表现是让步段与立论段的关系处理。因为这两个段落总是对立的观点,所以当学生在段落转换的时候没有建立连接或者暗示立场,文章就容易失去整体感。好的文章应该是流线型而非块状结构,即文章有一条逻辑线,即使两个对立的方面也是出自一人之口,彼此不再矛盾,而是和谐地挂在一根线上。其实实现这个流线型结构并非难事,只需在让步段的第一句做足功夫,格外小心即可。

仍旧拿远程办公为例,如果立论段写优势,那么让步段的第一句话千万不可这样写:However, there are disadvantages inworking at home.这句话太中庸,容易使整篇文章失去前后一致的清晰立场,而且和第一段也缺少联系。如果我们在这句话之上再加点东西,就能起到桥梁的作用:

l However, there are also disadvantages in working at home.

l However, there are certainly disadvantages in working at home.

l However, there are some minor downsides in working at home.

l However, I admit that there are demerits in working at home.

l However, I admit that e-working is not perfect.

l However, I understand why some people oppose e-working.

l Of course there are some opposite voices against this work fashion.

l However, the opposite voices also sound reasonable.

整体感的第三个关键环节是开篇段与主体段的衔接。相对于主体段的变数比较多,不容易总结模板,然而第一段却似有章可循,因此很多老师都会总结一些套路,希望降低学生的写作难度。虽然学生的确不愁写第一段了,但是由于忽略了段落间的关系,第一段和主体段缺乏联系,导致行文不流畅,逻辑不合理,最终伤害了文章的整体性。如果想增加流畅度,需要在第一段的最后一句话和第二段的第一句话上下点功夫。下面这道题是2009.12.12的题目,中心话题仍然是远程办公,但是出题的方式稍有变化:

Recently, some people can work from home using the modern technology. Somethink this only benefit the workers, but not the employers. To what extent doyou agree or disagree?

下面两句话摘自学生练习,是上面这道题目第一段的最后一句和第二段的第一句话:

But I am unconvinced that the benefits are restricted toworkers.(但是我不认为这些好处只局限于员工。)

As more and more professionals seek a better work-life balance, the workingfrom home option is becoming increasingly viable.(由于越来越多的人追求工作和生活的平衡,远程办公因此变得越来越可行了。)

从第二段的第一句话可以推断出该段的中心是雇员受益的方面,但是这句话没有和首段建立紧密的联系。如果我们保留这两句话不变,简单的改良方法是在第二段开头加上一句主题句,既起连接作用,又可以概括第二段的中心:

l Of course workers are the direct/ first beneficiaries of this workingfashion.

l Certainly workers benefit from telework at the first place.

l Undoubtedly many employees welcome this working fashion.

l There is no doubt that many employees would favour telework.

整体感的第四个表现是结尾段的总结。通常结尾段与主体段的连接非常简单,如In summary, toconclude等等,而难点在于总结的内容。重申自己的观点是最常用的策略,但是如果想让整个文章更有整体感,我个人建议重申不应只片面重复自己的观点,而应把对方的观点也涵盖进去,阐述清楚对立双方的关系。例如远程办公的利弊讨论,如果文章立场倾向于有优势,那么结论可以这样写:

In summary, telework, as a flexible and economic way of work, satisfiespeoples various needs in life and free people from restriction in location andtime, hence welcomed by people in many walks of life. It is true thattelecommuting is not mature enough at present and not suitable for all positionsor jobs,but I believe it will gain more popularity in the near future.

如果倾向劣势,可以这样写:

To conclude, employees working at home may gain more flexibility and savemoney for the employers,but they are more likely to find themselves losingconnection with the society, which is against human nature. If the significanceof work is beyond making money, then telework should not be advocated.

以上两种结论中都有一个转折词but,在这个连接词的前后同学们可以看到题目中的两个对立面。也就是说,虽然有偏向性,但是对立双方的关系在结论中是阐明了的。

如果中立,那么对立双方的关系会很自然地出现在结论段,写法如下:

Overall, my view is that whether adopt telecommuting depends on the workerand the type of his/her job. If the worker can tune in well and the job can beaccomplished individually, for instance, freelance writing or computerprogramming, or the workers are self-motivated enough, then telework may beoptimal. Otherwise, it should not be encouraged.

总之,有整体感的文章不是豆腐块,而是流线型跑车;不是死的,是活的。因此同学们要有强烈的自我意识,即这是我的观点,我在跟考官交流讨论,我要说服他/她。当有话要说不吐不快的时候,才容易写出流畅的有整体感的文章。相反,对话题陌生,无话可讲,又不得不硬往外挤的时候,往往会东一句西一句地拼凑,导致整体感丧失殆尽,语言再好都无法弥补。这篇文章只是对于整体感这个概念的阐述,如果想真正上手,还是需要做一些练习。

雅思写作:大作文的技巧

一、并列结构的使用

通过对官方范文的研究发现,考生在用并列结构提高句型档次的时候可以从以下几个层面入手:

1. 名词并列: n1,n2,n3,

这种并列又可以具体通过以下2种结构实现:

a). A,B,C, and other Xs

b). X,such Y as A,B,C,

i. Reading,writing,listening and other academic subjects could be learned from books,or primarily from books.

ii. Some knowledge,such academic subjects as reading,writing,listening,could be learned from books,or primarily from books.

iii. It is of great importance for people to read imaginative literature,such as poetry,novels or mythology.

iv. It is of great importance for people to read novels and other types of imaginative literature such as poetry and mythology.

2. 名词性成分并列: n. + what/how/whether/if

这种并列又可以具体通过以下2种结构实现:

a). what=something that

b). how=the way/manner in which

i. Most parents educate their children merely by instinct rather than proper pedagogy,and usually do not care about their relationship with children and how much neglect influences the future development of their children.

ii. Most students are eager to obtain knowledge,but they lack the sense of what is good,or what is necessary and how much a deficiency in the concept of viewing the situation as a whole would mislead them.

iii. My fellow Americans,ask not what your country can do for you,ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizen of the world,ask not what American will do for you,but what together we can do for the freedom of man. (John Kennedy)

3. 形容词成分并列:

a). a1 and a2+n

b). a1+yet/but+a2+n

c). a1,a2+n+that

d). a1,a2,so a3 that/as to

i. a small town a small and peaceful town

a good teacher a good and very impressive teacher

a stupid decision a stupid and incorrigible decision

ii. a simple yet effective method

a direct and simple yet magically effective method

an irrational yet understandable decision

a fair and balance,yet undesirable decision

an obvious yet not the most significant reason

iii. Most students can hardly stand for his typically dry and dull lectures that would normally continue at least several quarters without giving any essential information.

iv. The impact that technology has had on our daily life and society in general,is undeniable. It will become even greater as computers get faster,smaller,smarter,and so inexpensive that virtually everyone will be able to own one.

v. A class led by a lethargic teacher could be extremely dull,and so boring that drives everybody in the class into sleep.

vi. Learning in essence is a process that is time-consuming,painstaking, and so hard that virtually only persistent few can finally have a sense of real achievement.

4. 副词成分并列:

a). ad1 and ad2+n

b). ad1+yet/but+ad2+n

c). ad1,ad2+prep

d). ad1,ad2,so ad3 that/as to

i. A conscientious teacher always prepares his lecture carefully, intelligently,and with the full consideration of all possible aspects concerning the subject.

ii. Apart from energizing the athletes, physical strength helps them plough into the games enthusiastically and with confidence and even act as a deterrent force to their rivals to some extent.

5. 动词并列:

a). v1,v2+ing,v3+ing

b). s1+v1+ing,s2+v2

i. An absent-minded teacher lacks drive to make class intensely focused, often preparing nothing in advance,wandering among random topics, thus wasting and killing times of industrial students.

ii. As a result of this, food dealers have made huge profit from it, thereby promoting the sector as well as creating more jobs.

6. 句子并列:

a). , and therefore/thus/consequently

b). not only/simply/merelybut also/as well/even

c). neithernor

d). not thatbut that

e). that引导的宾语从句

f). that引导的定语从句

g). that引导的主语从句

i. Books keep records of thoughts and ideas, and are therefore the major source from which people obtain knowledge.

ii. Chinese children unfortunately have few rights to make their own decisions, and consequently often have to do things that they do not enjoy doing at all.

iii. Modern vehicles have extended the range of peoples activity, and thus made much more goods available to local markets.

iv. Computers have not only brought convenience, but they have also made people learn more.

v. Not that emails or telephones have made people less personal, but that people themselves have become less personal. One of several possible reasons is that people usually lack of adequate communicating skills.

vi. However, sports salaries are not determined by considering the contribution to society a person makes, or the level of responsibility he or she holds.

二、从句的使用

从句的使用是提高写作得分最有效的一种手段,雅思写作中主要涉及的从句主要是名词性从句,状语从句和定语从句,朗阁海外考试研究中心建议考生既可以单独使用这些从句来组织句子,还可以采用从句套从句的方式来提高句型的复杂度。

7. 从句套从句:

i. Those who feel that sports stars salaries are justified might argue that the number of professionals with real talent is very few, and the money is the recognition of the skills and dedication a person needs to be successful. 宾语从句+定语从句+表语从句

ii. This has been driven by technological and scientific breakthroughs that are changing the whole way we view the world on an almost daily basis. 定语从句+状语从句

iii. The reasons for this trend may involve the recognition that a young adult who passes directly from school to university is rather restricted in terms of general knowledge and experience of the world. 宾语从句+定语从句

iv. But overall, I think that this is less likely today, when academic qualifications are essential for getting a reasonable career. 宾语从句+非限制性定语从句

v. Unfortunately, it is not always the case that new things are promoted because they have good impacts for the majority of people. 名词性从句+状语从句

三、倒装句的使用

倒装句的使用主要包括否定词位于句首时的倒装,比较句中第2个句子的倒装和虚拟语气条件句中的倒装。

i. Not only should the parent spent more time with their children, they should also try to communicate with their children more often.

ii. Only in this way can this issue be effectively solved.

iii. Nor a bad environment will make people healthier.

iv. Only in very few regions do the residents have enough water for their daily needs.